The analysis suggests that residence restrictions have little potential for preventing sex offenses against children. Most importantly, the data indicate that very few sex crimes against children have been by the offender’s residence near a school, daycare center, or park.

  • -Joanne Savage, Casey Windsor,Sex offender residence restrictions and sex crimes against children: A comprehensive review, Aggression and Violent Behavior,
    Volume 43, 2018, Pages 13-25, ISSN 1359-1789,

Significantly higher proportions of transient sex offenders were found in counties with a larger number of local-level restrictions, vast territory covered by these laws, wide-distance buffer zones, higher population density, and expensive housing costs. Sex offenders were more likely than the general population to become homeless.

  •  Levenson J, Ackerman AR, Socia KM, Harris AJ. Where for Art Thou? Transient Sex Offenders and Residence Restrictions. Criminal Justice Policy Review. 2015;26(4):319-344. doi:10.1177/0887403413512326

The transience of registered sex offenders (RSOs) is a major impediment to reentry success, particularly because it has been linked to increased absconding and recidivism, and thus decreased community safety.

  • Socia KM, Levenson JS, Ackerman AR, Harris AJ. “Brothers Under the Bridge”: Factors Influencing the Transience of Registered Sex Offenders in Florida. Sexual Abuse. 2015;27(6):559-586. doi:10.1177/1079063214521472

Legislating individuals into homelessness is not sound social policy, nor is it humane. These laws do not conform to what is known about patterns of sexual perpetration and victimization, and thus do little to prevent recidivistic sexual violence. In fact, these policies may undermine the very factors shown by research to be associated with positive reentry and reduced recidivism.

  • Levenson JS. Hidden challenges: Sex offenders legislated into homelessness. Journal of Social Work. 2018;18(3):348-363. doi:10.1177/1468017316654811

Registrants subject to residency restrictions had a substantially higher risk of homelessness than their counterparts. Furthermore, residency restriction status and race interacted in their association with homelessness, such that the deleterious impact of residency restrictions was magnified for Black registrants. The results of the analyses demonstrate that Black sex offender registrants disproportionately disadvantaged by residency restrictions and highlight the importance of developing evidence-based monitoring strategies that prevent and end homelessness among convicted sex offenders.

  • Emily Suiter & Tia S. Andersen (2022) Residency restrictions, race, and homelessness among registered sex offenders, Criminal Justice Studies, 35:2, 132-144, DOI: 10.1080/1478601X.2022.2026352
The current mixed methods study examined attitudes and opinions of parole and probation officers who have supervised individuals convicted of sexual offenses (n = 361) regarding sex offender legislation and how these policies can be most effective in preventing recidivism… they perceived residence restriction laws and the tier system to be largely ineffective.
  • Leah Kaylor, Michelle K. Feinberg, Kseniya Katsman, Cecilia Allan, Emily Greene-Colozzi, Dylan Johnson & Elizabeth L. Jeglic (2022) Input from the frontlines: parole and probation officers’ perceptions of policies directed at those convicted of sexual offenses, Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, DOI: 10.1080/13218719.2021.1995521


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